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Checking That Cisco IOS Software Call Stacks Are Within the Text Section .. By modifying the ROM monitor on systems with flash-based ROM monitor storage. ... IOS Software Release 15.14M7 for a Cisco 1841 Integrated Services Router:.StocksTracking 10 best new free iphone monitoring without installing software an Employees Phone Location and Usage

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Use TACACS+ Authorization to Restrict Commands

Command authorization via TACACS+ should be enforced to keep tight control over commands that network administrators should not use without specific reasons. This can be accomplished by configuring authentication and command authorization via TACACS+.

When authorization is in place, the following commands should be restricted or prohibited by configuring the external AAA server. The following commands are particularly relevant to ensure that the Cisco IOS Software run-time memory and boot sequence are not modified:

  • gdb *
  • test *
  • tclsh *
  • service internal
  • config-register*
  • boot*
  • upgrade*

The following commands may be used to connect to line cards or switch processors on products that support them. They are particularly important because after the Cisco IOS device is connected to a line card or switch processor, the commands executed are not logged or authorized using the AAA server.

  • attach *
  • remote *
  • ipc-con *
  • if-con *
  • execute-on *

The following commands may be used to show a particular state of the system. They are important because they can be used during a reconnaissance attack to study the system and prepare an attack using other commands:

  • show platform *
  • show region
  • show memory *

Cisco IOS Software allows the use of the  do-exec  in configuration mode. It is important that policies for authentication, command authorization, and command accounting take this feature into account by restricting or prohibiting any of the commands detailed in this section even when they are preceded by the  do-exec  command (for example,  do-exec test * ).

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    Cisco 1800 Series Software Configuration Guide

    Book Contents Book Contents
    • Cisco Integrated Services Routers: Preface
    • Cisco 1800 Series Integrated Services Routers (Modular): Overview
    • Configuration: Basic Software Configuration Using the Setup Facility
    • Configuration: Basic Software Configuration Using the Cisco IOS Command-Line Interface
    • Configuration Example: Secured Branch Router
    • Configuration Example: IP Communication Solution for Group Applications
    • Configuration Example: Easy VPN
    • Configuration Example: Hoot and Holler over V3PN
    • Finding Feature Documentation
    • Troubleshooting and Maintenance: Changing the Configuration Register Settings
    • Troubleshooting and Maintenance: Using the ROM Monitor
    • Troubleshooting and Maintenance: Using CompactFlash Memory Cards
    • Troubleshooting and Maintenance: Upgrading the System Image
    • Troubleshooting Links
    Search Find Matches in This Book Available Languages Download Download Options

    Book Title

    Cisco 1800 Series Software Configuration Guide

    Chapter Title

    Troubleshooting and Maintenance: Using the ROM Monitor

    • PDF - Complete Book (4.34 MB) PDF - This Chapter (498.0 KB)

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    Updated: February 11, 2018

    Chapter: Troubleshooting and Maintenance: Using the ROM Monitor

    Chapter Contents
    • Contents
    • Platforms Supported by This Document
    • Prerequisites for Using the ROM Monitor
    • Information About the ROM Monitor
      • ROM Monitor Mode Command Prompt
      • Why Is My Router in ROM Monitor Mode?
      • When Would I Use the ROM Monitor?
      • Tips for Using ROM Monitor Commands
      • Accessibility
    • How to Use the ROM Monitor—Typical Tasks
      • Entering ROM Monitor Mode
        • Prerequisites
        • Using the Break Key Sequence to Interrupt the System Reload and Enter ROM Monitor Mode
        • Setting the Configuration Register to Boot to ROM Monitor Mode
        • Examples
        • What to Do Next
      • Displaying Commands and Command Syntax in ROM Monitor Mode (?, help, -?)
        • Examples
      • Displaying Files in a File System (dir)
      • Loading a System Image (boot)
        • Prerequisites
        • Examples
        • What to Do Next
      • Downloading Files over the Router Console Port (xmodem)
        • Prerequisites
        • Restrictions
        • What to Do Next
      • Modifying the Configuration Register (confreg)
        • Prerequisites
        • Restrictions
        • Examples
      • Obtaining Information on USB Flash Devices
        • Examples
      • Modifying the I/O Memory (iomemset)
        • Examples
      • Recovering the System Image (tftpdnld)
        • Prerequisites
        • Restrictions
        • Examples
        • What to Do Next
      • Troubleshooting Crashes and Hangs (stack, context, frame, sysret, meminfo)
        • Router Crashes
        • Router Hangs
        • ROM Monitor Console Communication Failure
        • Restrictions
        • Examples
        • Troubleshooting Tips
      • Exiting ROM Monitor Mode
        • Examples
        • What to Do Next
    • Additional References
      • Related Documents
      • Technical Assistance
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    Toggle navigation
    • Home
    • Mac
    • Windows
    • Android
    • 0 —USB flash device inserted in port 0
    • 1 —USB flash device inserted in port 1
    • Using TFTP or Remote Copy Protocol to Copy the System Image into Flash Memory
    • Using the ROM Monitor to Copy the System Image over a Network
    • Using a PC with a CompactFlash Card Reader to Copy the System Image into Flash Memory
    • Using Console Download (xmodem) in ROM Monitor to Copy the System Image into Flash Memory

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    Contents

    • Platforms Supported by This Document
    • Prerequisites for Using the ROM Monitor
    • Information About the ROM Monitor
    • How to Use the ROM Monitor—Typical Tasks
    • Additional References

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    DETAILED STEPS

    Step 1 enable

    Use this command to enter privileged EXEC mode. Enter your password if prompted. For example:

    Router> enable Password: Router#  

    Step 2 (Class B file systems only) squeeze flash:

    Note The squeeze command is only applicable for Class B flash file systems. It is not needed for Class C flash file systems. For more details on supported flash file systems, see Using CompactFlash Memory Cards .

    Use this command to reclaim the memory space of previously deleted files:

    Router# squeeze flash:   Squeeze operation may take a while. Continue? [confirm] squeeze in progress... sssssssssssssssssssssssseeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Rebuild file system directory... Squeeze complete  

    Step 3 dir flash :

    Use this command to display the layout and contents of flash memory:

    Router# dir flash:   Flash CompactFlash directory: File Length Name/status 1 6458208 c38xx-i-mz.tmp [deleted] 2 6458208 c38xx-i-mz [12916544 bytes used, 3139776 available , 16056320 total ] 15680K bytes of ATA CompactFlash (Read/Write)  

    Step 4 From the displayed output of the dir flash : command, compare the number of bytes available to the minimum flash requirements for the new system image.

    • If the available memory is equal to or greater than the new system image’s minimum flash requirements, proceed to the “Copying the System Image into Flash Memory” section .
    • If the available memory is less than the new system image’s minimum flash requirements, proceed to Step 5 .

    Step 5 From the displayed output of the dir flash: command, compare the number of bytes total to the size of the system image to which you want to upgrade.

    • If the total memory is less than the new system image’s minimum flash requirements, you must upgrade your compact flash memory card. See the hardware installation guide for your router.
    • If the total memory is equal to or greater than the new system image’s minimum flash requirements, proceed to Step 6 .

    Step 6 dir /all flash:

    Use this command to display a list of all files and directories in flash memory:

    Router# dir /all flash:   Directory of flash:/   3 -rw- 6458388 Mar 01 1993 00:00:58 c38xx-i-mz.tmp 1580 -rw- 6462268 Mar 06 1993 06:14:02 c38xx-i-mz.2800ata   63930368 bytes total (51007488 bytes free)  

    Step 7 From the displayed output of the dir /all flash: command, write down the names and directory locations of the files that you can delete. If you cannot delete any files, you must upgrade your compact flash memory card. See the hardware installation guide for your router.

    Note Do not delete the system image that the router already uses. If you are not sure which files can be safely deleted, either consult your network administrator or upgrade your compact flash memory card to a size that can accommodate both the existing files and the new system image. See the hardware installation guide for your router.

    Step 8 copy flash: { tftp | rcp }

    (Optional) Copy a file to a server before deleting the file from flash memory. When prompted, enter the filename and the server’s hostname or IP address:

    Router# copy flash tftp Need sample screendump.

    Step 9 (Optional) Repeat Step 8 for each file that you identified in Step 7 .

    Step 10 delete flash: directory-path / filename

    Use this command to delete a file in flash memory:

    Router# delete flash:c38xx-i-mz.tmp   Delete filename [c38xx-i-mz.tmp]? Delete flash:c38xx-i-mz.tmp? [confirm]  

    Step 11 Repeat Step 10 for each file that you identified in Step 7 .

    Step 12 (Class B file systems only) squeeze flash:

    Use this command to reclaim the memory space of previously deleted files, for example:

    Router# squeeze flash:   Squeeze operation may take a while. Continue? [confirm] squeeze in progress... sssssssssssssssssssssssseeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Rebuild file system directory... Squeeze complete  

    Step 13 dir flash :

    Use this command to display the layout and contents of flash memory:

    Router# dir flash:   Flash CompactFlash directory: File Length Name/status 1 6458208 c38xx-i-mz.tmp [deleted] 2 6458208 c38xx-i-mz [12916544 bytes used, 3139776 available , 16056320 total] 15680K bytes of ATA CompactFlash (Read/Write)  

    Step 14 From the displayed output of the dir flash: command, compare the number of bytes available to the size of the system image to which you want to upgrade.

    • If the available memory is less than the new system image’s minimum flash requirements, you must upgrade your compact flash memory card to a size that can accommodate both the existing files and the new system image. See the hardware installation guide for your router.
    • If the available memory is equal to or greater than the new system image’s minimum flash requirements, proceed to the “Copying the System Image into Flash Memory” section .
     
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    Smartphone Interface

    This program is loaded directly onto the phone youown and want to monitor. It is accessible by opening the app and entering your username and password.

    • Incoming and outgoing calls
    • Texts sent and received
    • Keystrokes typed
    • GPS locations
    • Social media activity
    • Instant messages
    • Contacts, calendars and notes
    • Photos and videos
    • Web browsing history
    • Emails

    Cisco IOS Run-Time Memory Integrity Verification

    Network administrators can also verify the integrity of the run-time memory of Cisco IOS. This is not a trivial task and there is not currently a solution that would allow the network administrator to analyze all parts of memory manually. However, the best way to verify the integrity of run-time memory for Cisco IOS Software is to analyze the region of memory called “main:text.”

    The main:text section contains the actual executable code for Cisco IOS Software after it is loaded in memory. As such, verifying its integrity is particularly relevant for detecting in-memory tampering. This region of memory should not change during normal Cisco IOS Software operation, and should be the same across reloads.

    Because this region of memory holds the actual operating system code, it should not change between devices as long as they are the same model and running the same release number and feature set. However, if the Cisco IOS release in use is ASLR enabled, these assumptions become invalid. A side effect of ASLR is changing some parts of the operating system code. This means the memory contents will be different across devices, even if they are running the same operating system release and feature set. See the  Cisco IOS Address Space Layout Randomization Considerations  section of this document for additional information.

    Note:  The absence of indicators of compromise using the methods presented in this section may not guarantee that the Cisco IOS device was not compromised.

    Core Dump

    Cisco IOS devices support exporting the contents of the running memory. After the export, comparisons between the running memory dump, also called core dump, and the associated sections in the Cisco IOS image file can be performed to detect modification of the run-time memory contents.

    The first step is to create a dump of the run-time memory. Most Cisco IOS releases support a memory dump via the  write core  command. Further information about core dumps on Cisco IOS devices can be found in the  Creating Core Dumps  support document.

    Note:  The name of the core dump file generated by Cisco IOS Software may differ depending on the specific Cisco IOS device, Cisco IOS release, and feature set in use.

    There are several tools available for extracting the text region. The Linux utility  dd  is used in this example. To avoid a block error, set the block size (bs) to 1. Additionally, because the text region starts with an offset of 0x1012B8, provide this information to  dd  after converting the offset in decimal equivalent: 1053368.  dd  also needs the size of the region: 67464520.

    Note that if the  compress  option is used, the file needs to be uncompressed before using it with  dd .

    dd if= bs=1 count=67464520 skip=1053368 of=router_main_text

    The file  router_main_text  will include the text region.

    After the text region is isolated, compute the checksum of the file. In this example, the Linux utility  md5sum  calculates the MD5 checksum of the file: md5sum router_main_text 1edd0985da7f1a490729fd0aaf9c0bd7 router_main_text

    This value should be compared to the MD5 hash value obtained by a hashing a main:text section taken from a router that it is known not to be compromised, also referred as known-good text region. The following section proposes a procedure to create a known-good text region.

    This method implies trust in the memory-dumping process, which may be compromised.

    Creating a Known-Good Text Region

    A known-good text region is a file that contains the main:text that it is known not to be compromised and that can be used as a reference point during the forensic operation. This section proposes the procedure that can be used to create a known-good text region.

    1. Download the Cisco IOS image from the Cisco  Support and Downloads  website and note the MD5 value of the binary.
    2. Use the method described in the  Using Offline Image File Hashes  section of this document to verify that the MD5 hash of the image downloaded matches the one on the Cisco  Support and Downloads  website. We will call this the "known-good image."
    3. Load the known-good image on a Cisco IOS device.
    4. Reload the device.
    5. After reload, use the method described in the  Using the Message Digest 5 File Validation Feature  section of this document to verify the integrity of the image that has been booted. We will call this "known-good device." The main:text memory region of this device will be called the known-good text region.
    6. Use the method described in  Verify MD5 Validation Feature for the Text Region  to calculate the MD5 hash value of the main:text region. This is what we call the "MD5 hash of a known-good text region."

    One alternative to Steps 5 and 6 would be to generate a core dump from the known-good device and then extract the known-good text region and calculate the MD5 hash using the method described in the  Core Dump  section of this document.

    Text Memory Section Export

    An alternative to collecting the core dump is exporting the text section using the  copy  command.

    Due to a bug in Cisco IOS Software, this method may cause a crash and a reload on the following platforms. Therefore this method should not be used for these platforms:

    • Cisco Catalyst 6880-X Switch
    • Cisco 3900E Series Integrated Services Routers
    • Cisco 1000 Series Connected Grid Routers

    Depending on the Cisco IOS release, the  copy  command can copy files stored in the Cisco IOS file system to an external server via several protocols, including FTP and Secure Copy Protocol (SCP). The following example shows how to copy the text memory section via FTP.

    Configure the FTP username and password if it has not been done already:

     

    Due to a bug in the Cisco IOS Software code, this method may cause a crash and a reload on the following platforms. Therefore this method should not be used for these platforms:

    • Cisco Catalyst 6880-X Switch
    • Cisco 3900E Series Integrated Services Routers
    • Cisco 1000 Series Connected Grid Routers

     

     

    Depending on the Cisco IOS release, the  copy  command can copy files stored in the Cisco IOS file system to an external server via several protocols, including FTP and Secure Copy Protocol (SCP). The following example shows how to copy the text memory section via FTP.

    Configure the FTP username and password if it has not been done already: ip ftp username ip ftp password

    Export the text region by using the  copy  command: router#copy system:memory/text ftp: Address or name of remote host []? Destination filename [text]? router_main_text Writing router_main_text !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    After the file has been exported, use the procedure described in the  Core Dump  section to verify the integrity of main text area.

    This method implies trust in the copy process, which may itself be compromised.

    Verify MD5 Validation Feature for the Text Region

    Network administrators can use the  verify /md5  command to compute the MD5 checksum of the text region without creating a memory dump. The text region is usually located in the system:/memory directory.

     

    Due to a bug in the Cisco IOS Software code, this method may cause a crash and a reload on the following platforms. Therefore this method should not be used for these platforms:

    • Cisco Catalyst 6880-X Switch
    • Cisco 3900E Series Integrated Services Routers
    • Cisco 1000 Series Connected Grid Routers

     

     

    Use the  verify /md5  command to calculate the MD5 checksum of the text region: router#verify /md5 system:memory/text ....................................................................... [...] .....................................Done! verify /md5 (system:memory/text) = 1edd0985da7f1a490729fd0aaf9c0bd7

    This value should be compared to the MD5 hash value obtained by hashing a main:text section taken from a router that it is known not to be compromised, also referred as the known-good text region. See the  Creating a Known-Good Text Region  section of this document.

    This method implies trust in the onboard  verify /md5  command, which may itself be compromised.

    Cisco IOS Address Space Layout Randomization Considerations

    To help harden the security posture of Cisco IOS, some products run a Cisco IOS image with Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR).

    When ASLR is active, the procedures described above may not be valid because ASLR dynamically changes the memory space where the text and/or other memory regions are loaded at boot time. In some situations, this also means that the instructions in the text region are changed after each reload so the text region does not stay the same across reloads or across different devices.

    To determine whether ASLR is active, network administrators can compare the output of the  show region  command between two Cisco IOS devices running the same image and feature set. If the regions have the same starting and ending addresses, that image does not use ASLR on that platform. If the addresses are different, ASLR is active.

    The following example shows the output of  show region  for two identical Cisco IOS routers (c1841) running identical images (C1841-ADVENTERPRISEK9-M), Version 15.3(2)T

    In the preceding example, the starting address of the text, data, and region is different. This information indicates that ASLR is active for this combination of software and hardware.

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